• Water: Water is a key resource and intervention at EU level is crucial to meet water demand from increased urbanisation and agriculture, and to manage the competition for scarce water from multiple uses and the water/energy nexus. Moreover, water, as part of the Sustainable Development Goals agenda, can provide additional opportunities for international cooperation (e.g. in the Mediterranean region). Water issues are therefore addressed across the entire Horizon 2020 structure and integrated in the work programmes of LEIT and of several Societal Challenges.
  • Earth Observation: Earth observation (EO) activities under Horizon 2020 are considered an essential element to accompany the investments made by the European Union in Copernicus, the European Union Earth observation and monitoring programme, and in the Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS). The activities addressing Earth Observation funded by Societal Challenge 5, LEIT/Space and Research Infrastructures form a coherent overall approach. Activities under Societal challenge 'Climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials' focus in particular on GEOSS, notably the development of comprehensive and sustained global environmental observation and information systems that stimulate the smart use of strategic resources, support the development of evidence-based policies, foster new environmental and climate services, and develop new opportunities in global markets. 
  • Cultural Heritage for Sustainable Growth: The objective of the actions in this part of the call is to harness the full potential of cultural heritage as a production rather than a cost factor and a strategic resource for a sustainable Europe and thus ensure its sustainability, safeguarding, resilience and enhancement. The focus is therefore to maximise the intrinsic economic, cultural and societal value of cultural heritage in promoting well-being, cultural diversity and social cohesion.